CLAT-What to study in the Indian Constitution

Constitution as a subject is very vast and it is very difficult for a student to decide what to study and what not to. In this blog, I will pick a few basic topics which are important for CLAT, AILET, SET, and other law entrances

Salient features of the Indian Constitution

» Lengthiest Written Constitution- It consists of a Preamble, 465 Articles divided into 25 parts and 12 Schedules

» Drawn from various sources:

    • The Fundamental Rights – American Constitution
    • DPSP – Irish Constitution
    • Parliamentary Government- British Constitution
    • Independence of Judiciary- US Constitution
    • Concurrent List- Australian Constitution
    • Fundamental Duties- Russia
    • Procedure Established by Law- Japanese Constitution

» Federal in form and Unitary in Spirit

» Single Citizenship

» Parliamentary form of Government

» Integrated and Independent Judiciary

The Preamble of the Constitution
  • It is based on the Objective Resolution, drafted by Pandit Nehru and adopted by the Constituent Assembly
  • It states that the constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949
  • The preamble states that the constitution derives its authority from the people of India
  • Amended by 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976, which added three new words- Socialist, Secular and Integrity
  • The Preamble specifies Justice, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity as the objective of the Constitution
  • In Kesavananda Bharti Case, the Supreme Court held that Preamble is the part of the Constitution
  • The preamble can be amended, provided that it does not alter the ˜basic features of the Preamble
Fundamental Rights

∇  Enshrined in Part III of the Constitution, from Article 12-35

∇  Magna Carta of India

There are 6 Fundamental Rights:

    • Right to equality (Article 14-18)
    • Right to freedom (Article 19-22)
    • Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
    • Right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28)
    • Cultural and educational rights (Article 29-30)
    • Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)

∇  Right to Property- deleted by 44th Constitutional Amendment and now a legal right under Article 300-A

∇  Fundamental rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions

∇  Except for Article 20 and 21, all the fundamental rights remain suspended during a national emergency

∇  Fundamental rights are justiciable, which means in case of violation of fundamental rights, a person can move to the court for their enforcement under Article 32 of the Constitution

Directive Principles of State Policy
  • Part IV of the Constitution, from Article 36-51
  • Borrowed from Irish Constitution
  • The DPSP along with the fundamental rights contain the philosophy and soul of the constitution
  • Although DPSP is non-justiciable, the state should apply these principles in making laws, because these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country
Fundamental Duties
  • Part IV-A of the Constitution (Article 51-A), specifies the 11 fundamental duties
  • Added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment 1976, on the recommendation of Swaran Singh Committee report
  • The Fundamental duties remind the citizen of their duties toward the country
  • It is also non-justiciable in nature
Supreme Court of India
  • The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950
  • Article 124- 147, deals with organization, independence, jurisdiction, powers, procedures of the Supreme Court of India
  • Including the CJI, the number of Judges in the SC is 31
  • The appointment of judges is done through the collegium system, which includes Chief Justice of India and four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court of India
  • The seat of the Supreme Court is in Delhi but also authorizes the CJI to appoint other place or places as the seat of the Supreme Court, with the approval of the President
  • Supreme Court is the Court of record
  • The Supreme court has the power of judicial review, to examine the constitutionality of legislative and executive orders of the government
  • The Supreme Court of India has following Jurisdictions:

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