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LAW Entrance Exam Preparation

CLAT Entrance Exam 2023 Details

CLAT stands for Common Law Admissions Test. It is an all-India entrance examination conducted by the National Law Schools/Universities for admissions to their undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs (LL.B & LL.M). The responsibility of conducting the exam is rotated and given on the basis of seniority in an establishment. 

There are 23 National Law Universities in India, with the National Law School of India University being the first to accept students in 1987. Out of the twenty-three NLUs, the National Law University in Delhi holds its own entrance exam, known as the All India Law Entrance Test. With the rise of other law schools that wanted to hold their admissions exams at the same time, students found it difficult to prepare for them. With the rise of additional law schools, students experienced a lot of difficulties preparing for entrance exams because they all wanted to have their admission tests at the same time. This topic has been discussed from time to time, with the goal of conducting a common admission examination to relieve students of the strain of taking several tests, but due to each law school’s autonomy, there was no central institution to coordinate activity in this respect.

Varun Bhagat brought the case to India’s attention in 2006 when he launched a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) against the Union of India and other National Law Universities in the Supreme Court of India. The Union of India was asked by the Chief Justice of India to confer with the National Law Universities in order to develop a single test. The Bar Council of India was a staunch supporter of the move.

The Ministry of Human Resources Development (Government of India) and the University Grants Commission of India convened a meeting of the Vice-Chancellors of seven National Law Universities, as well as the Chairman of the Bar Council of India, due to the lack of a central nodal authority to bring forth a consensus on the issue. After a series of similar discussions, the Vice-Chancellors of the seven National Law Universities signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on November 23, 2007, to administer a uniform admission test. CLAT was born as a result of this.

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The CLAT question paper for UG courses consists of 150 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) based on understanding from five subjects: English Language, Current Affairs, General Knowledge, Legal Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, and Quantitative Techniques. The CLAT PG question paper includes objective and subjective questions from a variety of law areas, including constitutional law, jurisprudence, administrative law, criminal law, corporate law, and contract law, among others. 

What's new in CLAT 2023?
Changes/Additions in the seat matrix
National Law Universities Changes/ Additions in the seat matrix
Maharashtra National University (MNLU), Nagpur Candidate belonging to Socially and Educationally Backward Class (SEBC) and who has the Maharashtra Domicile ONLY is eligible to update his/her reservation category in the Application form. It is available in both UG and PG courses
Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University (DSNLU), Visakhapatnam NRI Sponsored Category is added for both UG and PG courses. NOTE- No action is required from the applicant if he/she has already selected "YES" to the question or Do you belong to the NRI Sponsored category? in the application form, this category will be automatically applied
Gujarat National Law University (GNLU), Gandhinagar NRI Sponsored Category is added for both UG and PG courses. NOTE- No action is required from the applicant if he/she has already selected "YES" to the question ? Do you belong to the NRI Sponsored category?in the application form, this category will be automatically applied
The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences (WBNUJS), Kolkata NRI Sponsored Category is added for UG Course only and All India OBC category has been revoked for both the courses.
NOTE- No action is required from the applicant if he/she has already selected "YES" to the question ? Do you belong to the NRI Sponsored category? in the application form, this category will be automatically applied
Maharashtra National Law University (MNLU), Mumbai Candidate belonging Economically Weaker Section (EWS) category and who has Maharashtra Domicile ONLY is eligible to update his/her reservation category in the Application form. It is available for both UG and PG courses.
Himachal Pradesh National Law University (HPNLU), Shimla Candidates from BC/OBC and All India EWS category are eligible to update their reservation category in the Application form for the PG course ONLY
Maharashtra National Law University (MNLU), Aurangabad PG course has been added to this Institution. Applicants can update their order of preferences as required
National Law University of Odisha (NLUO) Eligibility Criteria for Odisha Domicile Reservation- Candidates who have passed 12th or equivalent examination from the State of Odisha and secured at least 60% marks (or its equivalent grade) in the said examination from any recognized college/university in the State of Odisha
CLAT 2023 Overview
Particulars Description
Name of the exam Common-Law Admission Test
Common name CLAT
Conducting body NUSRL, Ranchi
Mode of exam Offline
Number of questions 150
Question type Multiple Choice Questions
Number of Applications Around 59,000
Participating NLUs 21
Programs offered BA LLB, B.Sc LLB, BBA LLB, B.Com LLB, BSW LLB, and, LLM

CLAT 2023 Eligibility Criteria

The consortium publishes the eligibility criteria for admission to 5-year LLB and LLM courses offered by the participating NLUs on its official website. These criteria cover things like academic qualifications, minimum grades, and age limits, among other things. Note that affiliate colleges may have more criteria than those listed here; thus, you should check the website of the relevant university for the most up-to-date information.

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CLAT 2023 Exam Pattern

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Marks wise Distribution of CLAT (UG)

Section Number of Questions Marks
English 28-32 28-32
Legal Aptitude 35-39 35-39
Logical Reasoning 28-32 28-32
General Knowledge with Current affairs 35-39 35-39
Quantitative Techniques 13-17 13-17
Total 150 150

NOTE- 0.25 marks (Negative Marks) will be deducted for every wrong answer

Marks wise Distribution of CLAT (PG)

Section Number of Questions Marks
Constitutional Law 40 40
Other Areas (Jurisprudence, Administrative Law, Law of Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, Family Law, Company Law, Public International Law, Property Law, Tax Law, Environmental Law, and Labor and Industrial Law) 60 60
Descriptive Type Questions 2 (Essay questions) 50
Total 102 150

NOTE- 0.25 marks (Negative Marks) will be deducted for every wrong answer

CLAT 2023 Important Dates

Online registration starts January 2023
Admit card releases April/May 2023
CLAT 2023 exam May/June 2023
Official CLAT answer key releases June/July 2023
Window to raise objections June/July 2023
Release of final answer key June/July 2023
Declaration of CLAT 2023 result and merit list June/July 2023
Commencement of counselling July/August 2023

CLAT 2023 Admission Process

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Step 1


Visit the official website of the Consortium of NLUs, œ

Click on the ˜New Registration’ button

The candidate has to fill basic contact information such as Name, Mobile Number, Email ID, and create a password and confirm it

After filling all the details, click on the ˜Register’ button

After successful registration, the candidate needs to activate his account by entering a One Time Password (OT) which is auto-generated and would be sent to the registered mobile number or Email ID

Step 1

Step 2

Filling of application form

Personal details- Under this section, the candidate has to fill all the personal information; Full name, Gender, Date of birth, Father’s Name, Mother’s Name, Nationality, All India Category(General/OBC/SC/ST/BPL), NRI/NRI Sponsored category, if a Person with Disability (PwD) and percentage of disability (If applicable) and if the candidate wants to request the services of the scribe. All this information needs to be filled and checked properly

Communication Details- Fill the address, state, district, and pin-code of correspondence. If the current address and permanent address are different then enter the details of permanent address, state, district, and pin-code

Course Selection- A candidate has to choose a course between Undergraduate (UG) and Postgraduate (PG).

Academic Qualifications- According to the course, the candidate should fill the details of Qualifying examination, Name of Board/University, Exam status (Passed/Appearing/Appeared), Percentage, and Year of passing

If the Candidate requires previous years’ question papers. (Extra charges applied)

The candidate can select the City preferences for the CLAT examination

Before submitting the above-filled information the candidate can preview the form to verify all the details and then submit the form

Once the form is submitted the candidate has to mark a list of NLUs according to his/her preference from Most preferred NLU to the least preferred NLUs

Step 2

Step 3

Uploading of documents

In this step photograph, signature and state of domicile certificate have to be uploaded in the prescribed specification; refer the table below.

Document Image size (maximum)
Photograph 500 KB
Signature 100 KB
State of domicile certificate 2 MB
Step 3

Step 4

CLAT Application Fees

Category Fees
General/OBC/PwD/NRI/PIO/OCI INR 4000
SC/ST Category INR 3500

NOTE- INR 500 extra for purchasing previous year

Step 4

Syllabus for CLAT 2023

The first step toward effective exam preparation is to properly review the CLAT exam pattern and curriculum. The more familiar a candidate is with the number, kind, and character of questions, the more confidently he or she can attempt the CLAT paper.

CLAT (UG) is administered in a paper-and-pencil format. There are a total of 150 questions worth 150 points that candidates must answer in two hours. The exam consists of comprehension-based objective-type questions. 

The CLAT pattern for the LLM includes both objective and subjective questions from several law disciplines. The Consortium, however, eliminated the descriptive part from the exam in 2023. In total, there were 120 objective questions in the exam, which candidates had to complete in 120 minutes.

CLAT Syllabus for UG
Verbal Ability Quantitative Ability Logical ReasoninG General Knowledge and Current affairs Legal Aptitude
Comprehension passages Algebra Analytical Skills Contemporary events of significance in India and around the world Study of law
Grammar Profit and loss Inferring the information from the passage and applying it to other facts and situations Static General Knowledge Research aptitude
Synonyms and Antonyms Time and work Analyze the patterns and forming a chain of arguments Historical events Problem tackling ability
Erroneous Statements Average, speed and distance Events related to Arts and Culture Questions based on hypothetical situations
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words permutation-combination and venn diagrams
numerical ability
CLAT Syllabus 2023: LLM Syllabus

  • Constitutional Law
  • Law of Torts
    International Law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Intellectual Property Law
  • Law of Contracts
  • Criminal Law
  • Administrative Law
  • Family Law
  • Company Law
  • Tax Law
  • Environmental Law
  • Labor and Industrial Law
  • Public International Law

CLAT preparation tips for English Section

  • The degree of difficulty of the questions in this section is the same as in Class 12 English. 
  • Important areas to study for this section include vocabulary, antonyms/synonyms, reading comprehension, grammar, idioms, and phrases.
  • Make it a habit to read the editorial pages of reputable newspapers like The Hindu.
  • Daily practice with grammatical questions will help you master the fundamentals.

CLAT preparation tips for Current Affairs including GK

  • Regularly read newspapers and publications such as The Chronicles and Outlook India to stay up to date on all the latest news and events.
  • Keep track of all significant legal decisions.
  • Concentrate more on history and art & culture issues in GK.

CLAT preparation tips for Legal Reasoning

  • Reading newspapers and blogs about static and current legal topics might help you improve your reading and analytical skills.
  • You can also read newspaper and magazine essays written by some of India’s most well-known lawyers.
  • Every day, practice a Legal Reasoning passage.
  • Allowing your preconceptions or prior knowledge of the law to influence your answer when practicing is not a good idea. Remember that the answer to the question can only be found in the passage.

CLAT preparation tips for Logical Reasoning

  • Relationships, Analogies, Logical Sequences, and Arguments are just a few of the crucial topics to study for this part.
  • Shortcuts for solving Logical Reasoning questions can be quite beneficial.
  • Identify the premises and groups of arguments before attempting the passage.
  • Every day, practice at least one logical reasoning passage.

CLAT preparation tips for Mathematics

  • The level of difficulty of the problems in this part is the same as in Class 10 Maths.
  • To master the section, you must understand all of the concepts in the Class 10 Maths syllabus conceptually.
  • Basic Algebra, Ratios and Proportions, Mensuration, and Statistics are all important topics to study for this section.
  • Learning how to solve problems quickly will help you in this part as well.

CLAT 2023 Admit Card

The Consortium of NLUs had declared the exam calendar of CLAT 2023 in the last week of December but because of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, all the dates had to be postponed accordingly.

Events Details
Release Date of Admit Card To be Notified
Mode of disclosure of Admit Card The online mode only.
How to download CLAT admit card 2023?

  • Log on to the official website of the CLAT Consortium of NLUs,
  • The candidate can log in into his/her account by entering the mobile number and password which was used to fill the Application form
  • Once the candidate has logged in, there will be an option on the dashboard itself.
  • Click on the ˜Download Admit Card’ button
  • The candidate gets a preview option of the Admit card, verify and ensure all the details like Name of the candidate, examination center, registration number, etc
  • Download at least 2-3 copies of admit card on an A4 size paper and sign the Admit card to validate it
  • The candidate has to carry the admit card to the examination center

CLAT 2023 Answer Keys

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CLAT 2023 Result

How to check CLAT Result 2023

  • Visit the official website of the CLAT Consortium ,
  • Log into the account by filling your registration details and password
  • On successful registration, the result link will be flashed on the dashboard only
  • Check your CLAT score, rank, and qualifying status
  • Download the CLAT Score Card and take printouts of the result sheet

CLAT 2023 Cut Off

National University of Study and research in Law (NUSRL), Ranchi will declare the cut-offs after the announcement of results. The experts will declare the estimated cut-offs after analyzing the paper on the examination day itself. Cut-offs are the minimum marks or the least rank at which the candidates are offered seats for admission. Cut-offs are dependent on various parameters such as difficulty level of the exams, total intake of NLUs, and other colleges accepting CLAT and the number of applicants.

Due to some major changes in the exam pattern this year like reduction in the number of questions to 150 from 200 the cut-offs are expected to go high. However, comprehension based questions are going to be included this year which will reduce the level of difficulty of the exam. This changed/new exam pattern was introduced in the month of January 2020 so the candidates have less time to get acquired with this new exam pattern which makes the prediction of cut-offs more difficult. CLAT Consortium will declare the cut-offs for three rounds of Counselling procedure separately and the candidates who have scored less than the cut-offs of Round-1 can take part in the Round-2 and subsequently

Registration for Exams Start 1st January 2023
Last Date to submit Application Form 15th June 2023
Admit Card Download 1st Week July 2023 (July)
Exam Date 23rd July 2023
Result Date 27th July 2023
Following is the step-wise procedure of Counseling Rounds

Step 1

The CLAT Consortium will release the First Seat Allocation List of limited students from all the categories who will be allotted seats in the NLUs depending on their ranks and scores and the allotted students have to deposit the counseling fees of INR 50,000 in a specific period mentioned by the CLAT Consortium.

If any student fails to pay the above- mentioned amount in the time specified by CLAT Consortium then his/her name would be removed from the list and that candidate would not be considered for further admission process

The candidates can exercise these options after paying the counseling fees-

1.Lock:- This option can be used by the candidates to fix the seats in the allocated NLUs by the CLAT Consortium on the list. After choosing the lock option their seat will be frozen in the NLU and won’t be included in the next rounds of admission

2.Upgrade:- If the students wish to upgrade the seat allotted to them by the CLAT Consortium in the next rounds of admission process then they can exercise this option and wait for allotment of better seats in the desired NLU in subsequent rounds of the admission process

3.Withdrawal:- The candidate can exercise this option simply by not depositing the counseling fees in the specified time frame. The name of the candidates will be dropped from the merit list and students lose their right to consideration in the admission process of CLAT
The CLAT Consortium will deduct a nominal fee of INR 10,000 and refund the remaining fees to the registered bank accounts of the candidate

Step 1

Step 2

The CLAT Consortium will release the Second Seat Allocation List of the students of all categories including the students who chose the Upgrade option in the first round of selection.

The Consortium will also release a waitlist of students who are provisionally selected in the place of students who will withdraw from the admission process

The candidates who are allotted the seats in the second list have to deposit the counseling fees of INR 50,000 in the specified time frame

After depositing the counseling fees the entire process is repeated as the first round

Step 2

Step 3

The CLAT Consortium will release the Third Seat Allocation List of the students of all categories including the students who chose the Upgrade option in the second round of selection.

The Consortium will release a waitlist of students who are provisionally selected in the place of the students who will withdraw from the admission process

The candidates have to deposit the counseling fees with the CLAT Consortium and fix their seats in the allocated NLU

Step 3

Step 4

After the students are allotted seats in the respective NLUs, they are required to inform the allotted NLUs and confirm their seats and complete the admission process

The candidates have to produce all the documents with the NLU for the verification and all the universities verify the original documents issued by the competent authorities

The admission of the students will be cancelled if he/she fails to produce the required documents/certificates or to meet the eligibility criteria

Step 4
CLAT 2023 Documents Required

  • CLAT 2022 Application Form
  • CLAT 2022 Admit Card
  • CLAT 2022 Score Card
  • Receipt of Payment of Counseling Fees
  • Class 10th Marksheet and Passing Certificate
  • Class 12th Marksheet and Passing Certificate
  • Caste/Tribe Certificate. (If applicable)
  • Caste/Tribe Validity Certificate. (If applicable)
  • Domicile Certificate. (If applicable)
  • Specially-Abled Certificate. (If applicable)
  • NRI Certificate. (If applicable)
  • NRI Sponsored Certificate. (If applicable)

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